瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

瑞穂の地名

二、高根  2. Takane

A、旗本知行地の小字A. Ko-aza names of the Hatamoto territories.
○田尻、高根下、神明下、本藪地、山下、打越、池ノ上、北狭山、金堀沢、田ノ入、狭山平。以上はすべて旗本大森家の知行地であるが、一部に旗本坂部家が支配した地所があった。図一の二本木坂部と記されている地点、即ち狭山平である。○ Tajiri, Takane-shita, Shinmei-shita, Moto-Yabuchi, Yamashita, Uchikoshi, Ikeno-ue, Kita-Sayama, Kanahori-zawa, Tano-iri, and Sayama-daira. All of these were the territories of the Hatamoto Omori clan, but there was a part ruled by the Hatamoto Sakabe clan. It was the place marked as Sakabe, Nihogi (see Fig. 1), namely, Sayama-daira.
また、小字本藪地は宮寺出雲祝神社(寄木神社)社領であった。In addition, the Ko-aza Moto-Yabuchi was the shrine territory of Izumo Iwai Shrine (Yoriki Shrine).
○高根村内に内村と称する駒形富士山村の飛地があり、現在に至っている。(図2参照)○ There is an exclave of Takane Village called Uchi-mura (inner village) within Komagata-Fujiyama Village, and it remains to the present (see Fig. 2)
B、高根新田 B. Takane Shinden
 幕府直轄の開発場が高根新田であるが、これは往古宮寺新田であり、宮野新田であった。宮寺といい、高根というと異った地域のようにとれるが、宮寺郷の中の高根、あるいは宮寺を総称した高根であったかも知れないのである。慶長年間(一六〇〇年頃)新町村が下師岡村の吉野織部之助や高根村の宮寺次郎左衛門によって開発されたといわれているが、この宮寺という人物は今日の狭い意味の高根でなく、宮寺郷一円のどこかに住んでいたと解するのが至当であろうと思われる。入間市宮寺の吉川忠八家文書によると、高根新田は明治初年頃は宮寺七ケ村新田と呼ばれ、宮寺新田、反別三十五町六反五畝十一歩、八十三石三斗六升三合、宮野新田、反別九十八町八反一畝五歩、二百三十八石八斗四升一合、となっている。しかし、高根村名主池谷家文書によると、享保十一年(一七二六年)に高根村から代官岩手藤左衛門に年貢が納められているのである。宮野新田は入間市宮寺坊の細渕春吉家文書によれば延宝五年(一六七七年)年貢割付が今井九左衛門名でなされており、古い新田であることがわかる。恐らく坊村の宮野某が取立てた新田であると思われるが、宮寺新田、宮野新田とも、高根村在住の百姓によって開発された持添新田であろうことは、明治初年富士山栗原家文書の絵図面に御料高根村開発場と明記されている(図4富士山村小字図参照)ことから明かである。旗本大森氏の知行が瑞穂町高根と入間市宮寺大森にまたがり、旗本坂部氏の知行が瑞穂町高根や入間市二本木、同宮寺山際、同西久保にまたがる等、元狭山地区と宮寺地区は、今日考えると紛わしい関係に思えるが、宮寺、高根の地名があるいは重なり、あるいは離れて用いられた経緯が、こういう事情から推測できるのではなかろうか。Although Takane Shinden was land directly developed by the shogunate, in much earlier times it had been Miyadera Shinden, and also Miyano Shinden. When referring to Miyadera or Takane, they appear to be describing entirely different or unrelated places (according to the character-derived meanings), they may have been Takane within Miyadera-go or Takane under the generic district name of Miyadera. Although it has been said that Shinmachi Village was developed by Yoshino Oribenosuke of Shimo-Moro'oka Village and Miyadera Jiroza'emon of Takane Village during the Keicho period (around 1600), the most reasonable interpretation would be that this person named Miyadera was living somewhere within Miyadera-go, and not in the small area of current Takane. According to the document of the Yoshikawa Chūhachi family of Miyadera, Iruma-shi, Takane Shinden was described, at the early Meiji era, as Miyadera Shichi-ka-son (seven villages) Shinden, comprising of Miyadera Shinden and Miyano Shinden. Miyadera Shinden had an area size of '35-cho 6-tan 5-se and 11-bu (353,590 m2)' with a yield of '83-koku 3-to 6-sho and 3-go (15,038 Lt volume of rice)', while Miyano Shinden had an area size of '98-cho 8-tan 1-se and 5-bu (979,950 m2)' with a yield of '238-koku 8-to 4-sho and 1-go (43,085 Lt)'. However, according to the Takane Village headman Ikegaya family document, the annual tribute was paid from Takane Village to the 'daikan' (local governer and magistrate representing the shogunate or Hatamoto) Iwate Toza'emon in Kyoho 11 (1726). According to the document of the Hosobuchi Haruyoshi family of Bo, Miyadera, Iruma-shi, the annual tribute assigned for Miyano Shinden was made under the name of Imai Kyūza'emon in Enpo 5 (1677), showing that it was an old shinden. Possibly it was the shinden where one certain Miyano of Bo Village collected the annual tribute, but it was most likely that both Miyadera Shinden and Miyano Shinden had been developed as the 'mochizoe' shinden by the farmers resident of Takane village. In fact, it is evident that this was the case, as was clearly written on the illustrated map in the document of Kurihara family of Fujiyama written in the first years of the Meiji era pointing to an estate developed by Takane Village (see Fig. 4, Ko-aza names of Fujiyama Village Map The map of Ko-aza in Fujiyama Village). Moto-Sayama and Miyadera districts were subject to a complex arrangement of Hatamoto territorial division: Hatamoto Omori's territory spanned from Takane of Mizuho to Omori of Miyadera, Iruma-shi, while Hatamoto Sakabe's territory included Takane of Mizuho as well as areas in the present Iruma-shi such as Nihongi, Miyadera Yamagiwa, Nishi-kubo. Such rather complicated relationships, thinking from today's perspective, are behind the place names of Miyadera and Takane, and by understanding the background, we can infer the circumstances why the place names sometimes overlapped or separated between the Miyadera and Takane districts.


図2 高根小字図(瑞穂町史より)
Figure 2. A Map of Ko-aza Names in Takane (from The Book of Mizuho Town's History)