瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

瑞穂の地名

三、下師岡新田  3. Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden

 開発当初の下師岡新田の範囲は新町境の小沼氏より師岡屋敷まで十軒の百姓の開発した地域である。箱根街道(青梅街道)の南側に屋敷をとり、その前が畑、その先が林になっていた。ほぼ短冊型の地割になっているが地形の関係で屋敷の間口十二間、山林の開口は十四間となっており、また、江戸街道が西に行くにつれて北に近づき、それだけ奥行が少くなるので、西側の百姓には、小沼氏西側の不整形な土地が与えられ、一軒当り一町六反歩になるように割当てられた。The initial size of the Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden was the area that ten local farmers had cleared and developed between the Konuma family's property at the border with Shinmachi and the Moro'oka residence. The residences were built on the south side of Hakone Kaido (Ome Kaido), and the field spread in front of them, and farther down was the forest. The allocated lands were near a rectangular, strip-shaped area with the house frontage of 12-ken (22 m) and the forest side opening (rear width) of 14-ken (25 m), reflecting the topography. In addition, since Edo Kaido toward the west became inclined in a more northward direction, i.e., the land length became shorter, the farmers in the west were given irregular-shaped land on the western side of Konuma's so as to have 1-cho 6-tan (approx. 1 ha 60 a, or 15,868 m2) per house.
○師岡屋敷○ Moro'oka residence
 これは俗称であり、公文書の記録に載っていないが、下師岡村の名主吉野彦右衛門が開発の拠点として屋敷どりをし、またその先の畑、山林を所有していた。また新田開発をあきらめて立去った百姓の分も預っていたので、吉野氏の持分は、一般の四倍近くになった。This was a common name and was not recorded in the official archives, but the headman of Moro'oka Village, Yoshino Hiko'emon, built the residence in 'Yashiki layout' as a base for development, and also owned the field farther down in the forest. Also, since the Yoshino had been entrusted with the land of the farmers who had given it up for the development of shinden and had since departed, Yoshino's land ownership now became nearly four times that of most farmers.
 この屋敷には、古い井戸が掘ってあり、開発当初の農民にとっては、欠くことのできない大事な場所であった。その後、清水弥平次氏の分家である村山氏が住んで、開発、名主吉野家屋敷あとの面影を残していたが、現在では、宅地造成等の結果、井戸の史跡指定も危ぶまれている。 In this residence, there was a well that had been sunk in old times, and it was an indispensable resource for farmers in that time of early development. Later, the Murayama family, a branch of the Shimizu Yaheiji family, lived and continued to develop, while preserving the remains of the former headman Yoshino's residence. Now, as a result of residential land development, etc., even the historic site designation of the well is under threat.
○弐本松(二本松)○ Nihon-matsu (Two pine trees)
もとの下師岡新田の畑地の部分の呼称で地名の由来は詳でないが、開発当時この辺り一帯は松林であった。その中でも最も大きかった二本の松は伐採を免れて、地名になったものと思われる。This is the place name of the crop field portion of the Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden. Although the origin of this name is unclear, the whole area was a pine forest at the beginning of the development. The place name may be derived from the two largest pine trees which somehow had escaped being logged in the pine forest.
 隣接の青梅市新町分の地名として、近くに五本松、平松という地名が残っており、これとは離れているが下師岡新田の東側に箱根ケ崎分の松原がある。As the nearby place names, Gohon-matsu (five pines) and Hira-matsu (flat pine) still remain in the adjacent Shinmachi of Ome-shi. Also, in the east of Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden, there is Matsu-bara (Pine field) of Hakonegasaki, although it is some distance away from Nihon-matsu.
○伝馬道○ Tenma-michi (post-horse road)
 下師岡新田の百姓が、年貢を親村の名主吉野氏に運んだ道であるとか、名主が新田見廻りの際に通った道であるとか諸説がある。下師岡新田の西端の原久雄家の前で箱根街道と分れて西北に進む道。現在は昭和石材の敷地内に消えているが、かつては、下師岡村に通じていた。There are various theories suggesting that it was the roadway through which farmers of Shimo-Moro'oka carried their annual tribute to the headman Yoshino of the parent village, or alternatively, the roadway that the headman used when patrolling the new rice paddies. This road branched from Hakone Kaido in front of the Hara Hisao's house at the western end of the Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden, and then proceeded to the northwest. While today the road disappears in the grounds of Showa Stone, it used to lead to Shimo-Moro'oka Village in previous times.
○桜木○ Sakuragi (cherry tree)
 伝馬道の北側にある。地名の起りはさだかでないが、雑木林の中に桜の木が目立って生えていたためであろう。同名のものが殿ケ谷にもあり、また、箱根ケ崎の日光街道と江戸街道の交差点に桜株といわれる地点がある。It is on the north side of Tenma-michi. Although the origin of the place name is unclear, perhaps it was because a cherry tree stood out conspicuously from the various other trees in the wooded grove. A place with the same name also existed in Tonogaya, and a point called Sakura-kkabu lies at the intersection of Nikko Kaido and Ed Kaido of Hakonegasaki.
○堊附(あくつけ)海道○ Akutsuke Kaido (road for carrying lime)
 新町の六道で青梅街道を横断し、下師岡新田の南で大江戸街道に合流する道を堊附街道と呼んでいる。堊とは石灰のことであり、これを馬の背中にのせて運搬した道であるためこの名が起ったのである。Akutsuke Kaido refers to a road which runs across Ome Kaido at Rokudo (six ways) in Shinmachi and merges with Oedo Kaido to the south of Shimo-Moro'Oka Shinden. Aku means lime, and the name originated because the road followed the path taken by packhorses carrying lime.
 大久保石見守長安は、江戸城修築に当って、成木で焼いた石灰を運ぶため、慶長九年、江戸から中野、荻窪田無を経て箱根ケ崎、表川村(不明)成木に通ずる道路をつくらせたという。この道は通称青梅街道と呼ばれているが、西多摩ではむしろ江戸に通じる道という意味で江戸街道と呼ばれ、もう一つの道と区別するために、大江戸街道、原江戸街道とも呼ばれている。 It is said that, for the extensive renovation of Edo Castle, Okubo Iwaminokami Nagayasu ordered a road to be built to carry burnt lime in Keicho 9 (1604) from Nariki to Edo through the villages of Omotegawa (not identified), Hakonegasaki, Tanashi, Ogikubo, and Nakano. This road is commonly called Ome Kaido, but in Nishitama it is instead referred to as Edo Kaido, meaning that the road led to Edo, or alternatively as Oedo (large Edo) Kaido or even as Hara  (field) Edo Kaido in order to distinguish it from another road, Edo-michi.
 石灰の産地は、上成木村および直竹村であったが、そこから表川村を経て箱根ケ崎村に至るのである。表川村については、そのような村名が見当らず、成木に対する表側(南向き)の村という意味で南小曽木村を考えるもの、石灰の仲継の小屋があったといって、藤橋村を推すもの等あるが、箱根ケ崎の継立場所も判っていないので、特定することができない。Lime production was centered on Kami-Nariki Village and Naotake Village, and from there it was carried to Hakonegasaki Village through Omotega Village. As to 'Omotegawa (表川, front river)' Village, a village of this name has not been found, although there are a few theories about it. One such suggestion is that Minami-Osoki Village was that village, because it is 'omotegawa' (表側, the front side, in this case 'southward') of Nariki. Another theory assumes that Fujihashi Village is the candidate because there was a relay hut relating to the lime transportation. However, it is not possible to identify Omotegawa Village since the relay site within Hakonegasaki is unknown.
 石灰運搬のコースとしては、古い正常な道としてこの堊附街道がそれらしい感じがする。 Regarding the lime transportation route, this Akutsuke Kaido seems to have been the usual path in old times.