瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

瑞穂の地名

三、下師岡新田  3. Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden

 北は箱根街道で長谷部新田、東は伊奈街道で箱根ケ崎、南は江戸街道で羽村、西は堊附街道(あくつけかいどう)で新町と境している地域。箱根街道を越え伝馬道の北にある桜木も下師岡新田に属している。It was the area surrounded by Hakone Kaido as the northern boundary with Hasebe Shinden, Inakaido forming the eastern boundary with Hakonegasaki, Edo Kaido forming the southern boundary with Hamura, and Akutsuke Kaido forming the western boundary with Shinmachi. Sakuragi, to the north of 'Tenma-mich (post horse road)' after passing over Hakone Kaido, also belonged to Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden.
 開発の当初は、下師岡村、野上村、大門村の名主が開発の責任者として、幕府との折衝、入植者の取扱いを行っていた関係でそれぞれの親村の名を冠して、下師岡新田、野上新田、大門新田と名乗っていた。In the early stage of development, the headmen of Shimo-Moro'oka, Nogami and Daimon villages were in charge of the development, negotiating with the shogunate, and coordinating the settlers. Hence their shindens carried the names of the parent villages: Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden, Nogami Shinden and Daimon Shinden.
 新田開発に着手してから約二十年後の寛延二年(一七四九年)になると、三新田を合併して、下師岡村の名主吉野市右衛門(彦右衛門の子)を責任者として、下師岡新田と総称することになった。これは、野上新田の場合、親村自身下師岡村の名主が兼帯しており、しかも、出百姓の定着がむずかしく、わずか五軒分にもかかわらず、名主が一時預って、年貢を代納する事態がつづいた。大門新田の場合も、入会地が開墾されるというので、その権利放棄の代償として与えられる開発地の払下げをうけたものの、自分の村の百姓は、入植を希望せず、他村の出百姓を招いて開発させる羽目に陥ったので、新田の年貢徴収や、日常生活の監督等をわずらわしいものに考えるようになった。In Kan'ei 2 (1749), approx. 20 years after the start of the shinden development, three shindens were merged and collectively designated as Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden with Yoshino Ichi'emon (son of Hiko'emon), the headman of Shimo-Moro'oka Village, as the person in charge. This was because, in the case of Nogami Shinden, the parent village itself was concurrently managed by the Shimo-Moro'oka Village headman. Moreover, because of the difficulties in settling the farmers dispatched there, their annual tribute continued to be levied to the headman at a reduced temporary rate equivalent only to the normal calculation for five houses. In the case of Daimon Shinden, it was developed by clearing the communal land, and given to the farmers of the parent village as the price for waiving their right to this common holding. However, because they did not wish to cultivate that land, peasants from other villages were invited to do so. Consequently, they gradually found it troublesome to collect the annual tribute, supervise daily life, etc.
 百姓自身も、小さな新田にわかれているよりも三新田が合併した方が、村入用も少くて済み、また、寺出入以来、ライバル関係にある長谷部新田との対抗上も好ましいものと考えていたのであろう。 The farmers themselves may have thought that, rather than running the small shindens separately, the merger of three villages was more advantageous in terms of reduced operating costs for each village, and also in terms of being more competitive with Hasebe Shinden in their rivalry since the dispute over the changing boundary, and therefore ownership, of the temple.
 開発に着手してから二十年たち世代も交代したと思われる寛延二年(一七四九年)三新田は合併し、開発当初より、新田に深いかかわりのある吉野氏のもとで下師岡新田として一つにまとまったのである。In Kan'ei 2 (1749), 20 years after the start of the shinden development, and at a time when a new generation had emerged, three shindens merged into one, as Shimo-Moro'oka Shinden, under Yoshino which was closely involved in the development of shinden from the beginning.