瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料


旧石畑村の地名  Place Names of the Old Ishihata Village

一、石畑(いしはた)  1. Ishihata (stone field)

 ここでいう石畑は、小字としての石畑のことでここは、石畑上(かみ)の駐在所から大日山の墓地の前を通っている上州道の両側にできた集落と、東に隣接する坊ケ谷戸の方へ伸びて行った集落とによってつくられている。Here, Ishihata means that as a 'Ko-aza', it comprises of two settlements: one formed on both side of JoshūKaido, which runs from the police substation at Ishihata-kami and passes in front of the graveyard on Dai'nichi-yama; and the other, which extended to the adjacent Bo-ga-yato.
 中学校や役場のある所は昔、田んぼであったといっても、本気にしない人も居るであろうが、丘陵から湧出る水を利用して稲作をしていたのである。石畑の地区には、田中(川島久好氏)田っぽ(吉岡与一氏)田端(村田和雄氏)のように田にかかわる屋号をもつ家があるが、これらの家の近くは田んぼであったことがわかる。排水の流れを良くし、人家が建てられるよう工夫し、現在の集落の形をもつようになった。 Although some may find it hard to believe that there were once rice paddies where now stand the junior high school and the town office, in olden days rice cultivation was carried out there using spring water sourced from the Sayama Hills. In the Ishihata district, there are families whose 'house names' are related to the rice paddies, such as 'Tanaka' (middle of paddies) (Kawashima Hisayoshi's family), 'Tappo' (Yoshioka Yoichi's family) and 'Tabata' (edge or end of the paddies) (Murata Kazuo's family), and it is evident that there were rice paddies near their houses. The current communities were formed as a result of people's efforts to find ways to improve the drainage so that the houses could be built.
 人々の住む場所にくらべ、残堀川南の地域は水はけもよく農耕に適していたが、小石が多く混っていて、耕作に苦労することも多かったに違いない。雨上りの畑に行くと、黒く濡(ぬ)れた土の中に白い小石が幾つも浮出て発見されるという。このような地区であったので、石畑と名づけられたのであろう。Compared to where people lived, the area south of the Zanbori River had a better drainage and was better suited to agriculture, but because the soil contained many pebbles, cultivation must have been a struggle. It is said that, when one goes to the field after the rain, a great many white pebbles were found on the top of the soil. For this very reason, the district must have been named as 'Ishi-hata' (the stone field).
 石畑の集落は、沖組(丘陵の麓の奥まったところ)中組、表組の三つに分けられるが、表組の多くは、沖組の分家とか、沖では農業に不便だからと沖から越して来た家等比較的新しい家が多い。Ishihata's communities were devided into three, 'Oki-gumi' (Oki group, located at the furthest back portion at the foot of the hills), 'Naka-gumi' (middle group), and 'Omote-gumi' (front group). Many of those in the Omote-gumi were relatively new houses, which were moved from Oki-gumi, for such reasons as families branching out or being better suited for agriculture than Oki.
○女窪(おなくぼ)○ Ona-kubo
 大日山の東側の谷津は女窪と呼ばれ、昔比丘尼(びくに)が住んでいたのでその名が起ったといわれている。そこに住む川島賢一氏の屋号も女窪と呼ばれている。川島氏が、昭和十二年頃後の裏手の山の中腹を開墾中掘出した板碑は五枚あるが、徳治三年(一三〇八年)のものは瑞穂町で二番目に古いもので、鎌倉時代には既に人の住んでいた証拠である。The eastern side of 'Yatsu' (valley) of Dainichi-yama (Mt. Dainici) is called Ona-kubo (woman in a recess), and it is said that the name owed its origin to a Bikuni (buddhist nun) who lived there in the old days. The 'house name' of Kawashima Ken'ichi's family who lives there has also been referred to as Ona-kubo. The oldest of the five Itabis was excavated by Kawashima around Showa 12 (1937) while he was clearing land for cultivation in the middle part of the mountain slope, behind his house. The oldest itabi is from Tokuji 3 (1308), which is the second oldest itabi found in Mizuho, and is evidence that people were already living there in Kamakura period.
○柳井戸(やなぎのいど)○ Yanagi-no-ido (a well beside a willow tree)
 石畑一八八九番地旧村田辰蔵氏の屋敷内にあり、文化の頃駒形村の神職栗原氏の檀家帳に「村田喜兵衛家よりの分家村田弥八屋敷内にあり、いかなる渇水にも水きれ致さず……………この名水を村田柳之井戸という」と記されている。この附近から東にかけて、田中、田っぽという屋号の家かあるように田圃であり濁らず、しかも水渇れのない井戸は生命の源として大事にされていたものであろう。The well is located within the former Murata Tatsuzo's residence (at 1889 Ishihata, Mizuho). The description of the well is found in the Komagata Village Shinto priest Kurihara's parishioner book from the Bunka period (1804-1818) which states, "the well in the residence of Murata Yahachi, whose family had branched off from Murata Kihei, never dries up in any drought .... and this famous water well is called the Murata Yanagi-no-ido". The well would have been cherished as a life-sustainer, because it never dried up or became cloudy in the paddy field as indicated in the 'house names' Tanaka and Tappo, found in this eastern location.
○とうとうふち○ To-to-fuchi (To-to river edge)
 検地帳にはとうとうふちと記されているが一般にはずうずうと呼ばれている。瑞穂中学校の敷地は狭山谷と呼ばれ、麓から湧き出る水を利用して谷津田が開けていた。その東側を流れている小川は吉岡利男氏の家のあるあたりで音をたてて、流れおちていた。このとうとうと音をたてている地帯をとうとうふちと呼ぶのだという説がある。また一説は村と村のすれすれの境にある場所をすうすうといい、それが訛ってずうずうといわれるようになったという。It is written as "To-to-fuchi" in the Kenchi-cho, but it is generally referred to as "Zū-zū". The site of Mizuho Junior High School was called 'Sayama-dani', and 'Yatsu-da' (valley paddies) had been developed using the water springing from the foot of the hills. The stream on the eastern side cascaded noisily near Yoshioka Toshio's house. So, according to one theory, the area got its name from the sound, to-to, made by the water rushing down. Also, there was the other view that the boundary area immediately adjoining villages was called "Sū-sū" and this pronunciation was corrupted to "Zūzū".
○あらい○ Arai
 町役場の東側とうとう渕の流れが他の流れと合流して、残堀川(ざんぼりがわ)に注ぐあたりを新井(あらい)とよんでいる。新しくつくられた掘割り、新しく掘られた井戸、等の他にあらい=新しく開墾された土地なども想像されるが確かなことはわからない。附近にすむ、臼井長太郎氏の屋号は「あらい長さん」で通っている。The area to the east of the town office, where the stream of To-to-fuchi merges with the other flows into the Zanbori River, is called Arai. From the Chinese characters, it is conceivable that it refers to a newly cut canal, or a newly dug well, and even newly cleared land, but none of these explanations is certain. The 'house name' of Usui Chotaro's family who lives in the neighborhood has been "Arai Cho-san".
○どうせん塚○ Dosen-zuka (Dosen mound)
 道仙塚とも記す。塚のあった附近一帯の地名。塚の位置については、上の火の見櫓(やぐら)(川島恵作家東)にあったが、残堀川の改修や、青梅街道の普請の際の埋立用に使用され姿を消した。This name, 'どうせん塚' in kana-alphabet, is also written as '道仙塚' (Dosen-zuka) in Chinese characters. It is the name of the area, including the nearby location, of the mound. The mound was located where the fire watchtower (to the east of Kawashima Keisaku's house) was in Ishihata-kami (upper Ishihata), but it disappeared following the improvement work on the Zanbori River and the removal of soil for landfill when Ome Kaido was built.
 尚、これとは別に、石畑上駐在所のところにも大きな塚があり、その上には、現在、地蔵堂の傍にある。享保年間の庚申塔と、文政年間の馬頭観世音の塔が建っていた。これも、道仙塚同様、残堀川のつくった凹地の埋立て用に使われてしまった。Apart from this, it should be noted that there was a large mound where the Ishihata-kami police substation is located. On the top of the mound there were a Koshin (57th of the Chinese 60-year calendar cycle) tower of the Kyoho period (1716-1736) and a Bato Kannon tower (horse-headed bodhisattva or Hayagriva) of the Bunsei period (1818-1830), both of which are now standing beside the Jizo-do. Just like Dosen-zuka mound, this mound was also destroyed when earth was removed to fill the depression caused by erosion by the Zanbori River.
 十数年前地蔵堂附近の残堀川を改修中、元応年間の板碑が発見されたが、これも、塚か、橋のたもとにあったものが工事のため移動されたものであろう。 More than a decade ago, during the improvement work of the Zanbori River near Jizo-do, an itabi from Gen'o period (1319-1321) was discovered. It had probably been moved from the mound or the foot of the bridge to that location due to the work on the river.
○塚越○ Tsuka-goshi
 道仙塚の南、第一小学校のあたりは塚越と呼ばれている。塚を越した向う側の土地という意味であろう。この辺は地味も良く、屋敷にも近く農地としては最適地であった。The area around the Mizuho 1st Elementary School, in the south of the Dosen-zuka mound, is called Tsuka-goshi. This would mean the land the other side, or past, the mound. The land around this area was prime farmland with good quality of soil and handy to their homes.
○石畑前○ Ishihata-mae
 文字通り上の石畑集落の前ということで西は塚越、東は二本榎に挟まれた石畑診療所附近の畑一帯の地名である。It literally means that the place was 'mae' of (in front of) the Ishihata community, and indicated a crop field area, near the Ishihata Clinic and sandwiched between Tsukagoshi in the west and Nihon-enoki in the east.
○大神海道○ Okami Kaido
 箱根ケ崎村の項に同じAs described in the section on the Hakonegasaki Village
○孫右衛門塚○ Mago'emon-zuka (Mago'emon mound)
 同右The same as on the right.
○桜株(さくらっかぶ)○ Sakura-kkabu (cherry tree stump)
 日光街道と大江戸街道との交差点の東南隅に笹に覆われた塚があった。桶田茂一家の祖先に当る福泉氏の享保年間の碑も立っていた。塚の近くには桜の大きな切株があったので桜株の地名が生じたとのことである。大江戸街道はこれより東、村山団地附近では桜街道という別名があるように両側に桜が植えてあったとのこと、この桜株もそれの名残りではないかと思う。There was a mound covered with bamboo grass at the southeast corner of the intersection of the Nikko Kaido and Oedo Kaido. A monument of the Kyoho period (1716-1736) for the Fukuizumi clan, the ancestor of Okeda Shigeichi family, also stood there. The place name Sakura-kkabu was said to be derived from the large cherry tree ('Sakura') stump ('kabu') beside the mound. Along Oedo Kaido, as indicated by its alternative name of Sakura Kaido, cherry trees were said to have lined both sides from that point to the east up to near the Murayama apartment complex, and this cherry stump may be a remnant of these.
 ちなみに日光街道の松並木は明暦の頃箱根ケ崎の村人によって風致林ならびに防風林として植林されたが、明治維新に伴い、日蔭をつくり作物に害があるとの理由で採伐され、その敷地の多くは、石畑の百姓に払い下げられた。Incidentally, rows of pine trees of Nikko Kaido were planted by the villagers of Hakonegasaki at around the Meireki period (1655-1658) to create scenic forests and windbreaks. However, following the Meiji Restoration, the trees were cut down because the shade they cast harmed crop growth, and many portions of roadside land were sold to the farmers of Ishihata.
○井戸向(いどむこう)○ Ido-muko
 日光街道を挟んで桜株との反対側(日光街道の西側で大江戸街道の北側)に原島七五郎氏の先々代迄住み、馬方相手の茶店を営んでいたという。その時使った井戸があった。この井戸より南西の方を井戸向うと呼んだものと思われる。On the other side of Sakurakkabu on Nikko Kaido (west of Nikko Kaido and north of Oedo Kaido), the Harashima Shichigoro family had lived from his grandfather's generation, and had operated a tea house to cater for packhorse drivers. A well was in use in those days, and thus it seems that the area southwest from this well was called 'Ido-muko (beyond, or on the other side of, the well)'. The well later fell apart, and the water also dried up, and so the family moved to the present location.
 井戸は、その後崩れ、水も枯れたので現在の場所に移ったという。The well later fell apart, and the water also dried up, and so the family moved to the present location.
○武蔵野○ Musashino
 大江戸街道より南の川崎村(現在羽村町に属する)との地境までの総称で、現在は殆んど基地の中に入り、一部都営住宅などの宅地になっている。地味の痩せた軽土で人家から遠いため、開墾が遅れ、雑木林、又は松林で薪や落葉(推肥用)の供給地であった。江戸時代中期以降次第に新田として開発された。戦後もなお山林の状態を止めていたが、基地拡張や、都営住宅の建設、農地改革に伴う平地林の開墾等により姿を消した。It was the generic name for the area from Oedo Kaido to its south down to the boundary with Kawasaki Village (which is now part of Hamura-machi), but most of it is now within the Yokota Base and some portion is residential, including the Metropolitan housing. Because the land was poor with light soil and far from any habitation, its clearing was delayed and it remained as a woodland of mixed trees or pine trees, supplying firewood and fallen leaves for compost. After the mid-Edo period, the area was gradually developed as 'shinden' (new paddies). Even during the postwar era, it still remained in its wooded state, but this changed with the expansion of the base, the construction of metropolitan housing, and the clearing of lowland forest for cultivation following the land reform.
○土手海道(どてかいどう)○ Dote Kaido (embankment Highway)
 茂木から石灰を運ぶためにつくられた大江戸街道は、石畑のあたりでは、畑より一段高く盛土をし、土手状になっていたので、土手街道の別名があるこの道の手前、村に近い方を土手内、道の向う側を土手向と呼んでいる。Oedo Kaido, which was built to carry the lime from Nariki, was elevated above the field level as an embarkment ('Dote') around Ishihata, and therefore Dote Kaido became its alternative name. The area which was before this Kaido and closer to the village was called as 'Dote-uchi (inside of the Dote)' and the other side as 'Dote-muko'.
○シドメ窪○ Shidome-kubo (depression with 'shidome' shrubs)
 大江戸街道の南方にはところどころ窪地があり、その附近はシドメの 生地であったので、その地名がつけられたという。東は石川島の工場の辺りから西は富士見町の一部に及ぶ一帯である。It is said to have been named after the 'shidome' (dwarf flowering quince) which grew around the depressions found here and there in the south of the Oedo Kaido. The area extended from around the Ishikawajima company's factory in the east to a portion of Fujimi-cho in the west.