瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

瑞穂の地名

二、街道について  2. About Kaido (highways or main roads)

 寛永十三年(一六三六年)に日光東照宮が完成した後、慶安五年(一六五二年)に八王子千人同心が日光勤番(守護と火消役)を命ぜられ、通行するようになって、従来からあった道路を改修し、利用した。Once the old road was renovated, it was used by the 'Hachioji Sen'nin Doshin' (thousand junior officials of Hachioji) to commute to Nikko under orders to take up their guard/firefighter role in Keian 5 (1652) after the completion of Nikko Toshogu Shrine (which enshrined Tokugawa Ieyasu) in Kan'ei 13 (1636).
八王子‐拝島‐箱根ケ崎‐二本木‐扇町屋(おおぎまちや)‐高萩‐坂戸………松山……栃木……鹿沼……今市に至る街道で二十二宿があり、片道凡そ四日であった。道巾四~五間で、道を挟んで南から、上宿(宿に入ってから北は江戸街道まで)中宿(上宿につづき大橋場まで、時に青梅街道との交差点までを上中宿として別の宿と考える場合もある)新宿(或は下宿、大橋場より坂上富士山境まで)の宿があり各宿には組頭が一名ずつおかれた。It took approx. four days each way, and there were 22 'shuku' (or -juku, meaning post stations) along the highway, starting from Hachioji - Haijima - Hakonegasaki - Nihongi - Ogimachiya - Takahagi - Sakado ... Matsuyama ... Tochigi ... Kanuma ... to Imaichi. The road width was 4-5 ken (7-9 m), and the stations were called Kami-shuku (Upper station) (from the south end to Edo Kaido), Naka-shuku (Middle station) (from the north end of the Upper station to Ohashiba), and Shin-juku (New station) (or Lower station, from Ohashiba to the border with Sakaue Fujiyama): with regard to Naka-shuku, it could be further subdivided as Kami-naka-shuku (Upper-middle station) which was up to the crossing with Ome Kaido. Each station had one section leader.
 千人同心は半年毎に五十人ずつが交代で日光につめたので、上番のものが日光につくと、勤務していたものは交代して下番(かばん)となるわけで、従ってこの日光街道は一年間に二度ずつ上、下の一行が通行したわけである。箱根ケ崎の百姓はその度に、二本木と、拝島まで荷物の継立(つぎたて)の人足として従事したわけである。Since 50 members of Sen'nin Doshin served in Nikko in 6 month-shifts, the group having completed the early-shift were replaced by the late-shift group, and accordingly each group travelled along the Nikko Kaido twice a year. Each time the farmers worked as heavy laborers to 'tsugitate' (relay men and horses) for carrying goods and baggage to Nihongi and Haijima.
 この街道の両側には、明歴年間、村山氏の指示で村人足で松を植え、風除け、風致林とした。現在、埼玉県鶴ケ島にその面影を残す並木がある。During the Meireki period (1655-1657), pine trees were planted on both sides of this kaido by the village's heavy laborers under Murayama's directions in order to create a windbreak and a scenic forest. Today, in Tsurugashima, Saitama Prefecture, a tree-lined road remains as a vestige of this undertaking.
 またこの街道は野州(栃木県)の人々の大山講、伊勢講の人々の往来でにぎわい旅籠屋も多いときには沿道に十三軒を数えた。Also this kaido was thronged with people of Oyama-ko and Ise-ko (where 'ko' means a fraternity for making a pilgrimage to a shrine or temple) from Yashū (or Shimotsuke Province, present Tochigi Prefecture), and at its busiest time more than 13 thriving roadside inns were counted along the route.
 その他、一の日、六の日の市(一、六の市)が立ったのもこの沿道でありふだんは、青梅街道の交差点を境に南北交代で市が立ち、年末、正月には南北一斉に市が立ち見世物も出たという。何度も火災に遇ったため、風上にあたる新宿の一部に当時の面影を偲ぶことができる。In addition, this roadside location hosted a market open on each day with a number '1' and '6' (i.e.,1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st and 26th) every month. It opened usually in turn on the north side or south side from the boundary at the intersection with Ome Kaido, whereas at the end of the year and during the New Year it opened on the both sides at the same time and even staged street entertainments. Due to repeated fire losses, only a part of Shin-juku, which was to the windward side, can show a reminder of the features of that time.