瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

瑞穂町と横田基地

Ⅰ 瑞穂町の概要 Overview of Mizuho Town

 

 この地に人が住み始めたのは、旧石器時代にあたる約2万年前といわれ、浅間谷や狭山遺跡、松原遺跡では、その頃の石槍等が発見されている。奈良・平安時代になると、狭山丘陵の南麓にはいくつかの谷津田がつくられ、集落が発達した。鎌倉時代は、武士集団である武蔵七党の一つ村山党の根拠地となり、後には小田原北条氏の支配下となった。Humans first occupied this land around 20,000 years ago in the Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age, and stone spears and other implements from that time have been discovered in Asama valley and in prehistoric sites at Sayama and Matsubara. Moving to the Nara and Heian period, some rice paddies appeared in the valley on the south foot of Sayama Hill, and in areas of settlement. In the Kamakura period, this district became the home base of the Murayama Party which was one of the Musashi Seven Parties samurai group, and was later placed under the control of the Odawara-Hojo clan.
 江戸時代に入り、日光街道と青梅街道が交差する箱根ケ崎は宿駅として発達し、さらに幕府の新田開発の奨励により、栗原・長谷部・下師岡の3つの新田が開かれた。In the Edo period, Hakonegasaki, at the point where Nikko-kaido and Ome-kaido highways intersect, developed as a post station town. Three more areas of new field, Kurihara, Hasebe, and Shimomorooka, emerged as a result of the shogunate’s policy of encouraging new rice paddies.
 明治22(1889)年に箱根ケ崎・石畑・殿ヶ谷・長岡の4か村をもって組合を組織し、行政運営を行ってきたが、昭和15(1940)年に組合を発展的に解消して町制を施行し、瑞穂町が誕生した。昭和33(1958)年には、町村合併促進法に基づき、埼玉県入間郡元狭山村の一部と合併し現在の瑞穂町が形成された。In Meiji 22 (1889), the four villages of Hakonegasaki, Ishihata, Tonogaya and Nagaoka formed an association to be responsible for local administration. In Showa 15 (1940), however, this association was disbanded and a town organization was installed and with that the town of Mizuho was born. In Showa 33 (1958), in accordance with the Law for Promoting the Merger of Towns and Villages (“Cho Son Gappei Sokushin Ho), the town was merged with part of Moto-sayama, a village of Iruma-gun, Saitama Prefecture, thus creating today’s Mizuho Town.
 この間、昭和6(1931)年に八王子・東飯能間に鉄道(現八高線)が開通し住民の足として大いに利用され始め、商業活動も盛んとなった。During this period, in Showa 6 (1931) the railway (now the Hachiko Line) opened between Hachioji-Higashihanno, and became a much-utilized transport facility for the residents, and local commercial activities also flourished as a result.
 昭和14(1939)年から19(1944)年にかけて、陸軍が狭山丘陵から南に面した福生市に連なる広大な山林や畑の買収を行い、飛行場が設置され、併せて箱根ケ崎駅から周辺の軍事施設への道路整理が進められた。昭和20(1945)年には占領軍が飛行場を接収し、横田基地となった。From Showa 14 (1939) to 19 (1944), the Army acquired vast forests and fields extending from Sayama Hill to Fussa in the south, and installed an airfield. In addition, a reorganization of the roads from Hakonegasaki Station to the local military facilities was pushed forward. In Showa 20 (1945), the airfield was requisitioned by the occupation forces, and became the Yokota Air Base.
 昭和30年代後半には都営住宅が建設され、また周辺地域の市街化が進行した。また、昭和45(1970)年には市街化区域と市街化調整区域の区域指定がなされ、昭和49(1974)年には西部土地区画整理事業及び公共下水道事業が開始された。In the late 30s of the Showa Era (1960-1964), Tokyo metropolitan public housing was built, while the surrounding areas gradually became urbanized. In addition, in Showa 45 (1970) the town was designated to be promoted as an area for urbanization and as an urbanization adjustment area, and in Showa 49 (1974) the western area land readjustment project and public sewerage project were started.
 昭和53(1978)年に「心のふれあう町をつくろう」をモットーに、瑞穂町まちづくり総合計画がつくられ、平成3(1991)年には、第2次長期総合計画として「ヒューマンタウンみずほ―人間尊重のゆとりあるまち―」が、平成13(2001)年には第3次長期総合計画として「人と自然が織りなすまち みずほ ~快適な生活環境をめざして~」が策定された。Under the banner "Creating a town that brings people together", a comprehensive plan was made in 1978 for the urban development of Mizuho, and in Heisei 3 (1991) the "Mizuho – the People-Friendly Town which Values Our Residents' Dignity and Comfort" became the second long-term comprehensive plan. Subsequently, in Heisei 13 (2001) the third long-term comprehensive plan, "Mizuho Where People and Nature Coexist to Create a Comfortable Life" was launched.
 まちづくりでは平成6(1994)年に国道16号瑞穂バイパスが開通し、平成8(1996)年には八高線八王子・高麗川間が電化開業するなど交通の利便性が向上した。また、平成4(1992)年に西部土地区画整理事業が完了し、平成8(1996)年には箱根ケ崎駅西、殿ケ谷両地区の土地区画整理事業、平成24(2012)年には新青梅街道の再拡幅事業が認可されるなど、都市基盤整備が進んできている。As for town planning, transportation was greatly improved with the opening of the Mizuho bypass for the National Route 16 in Heisei 6 (1994), followed by the electrification of the Hachiko Line between Hachioji and Komagawa in Heisei 8 (1996). Also, there has been progress in upgrading urban infrastructure following the approvals given for the completion of the western land readjustment project in Heisei 4 (1992), the land readjustment project involving both districts, west of Hakonegasaki Station and for Tonogaya in Heisei 8 (1996), and the re-widening project for the new Ome-kaido Road in Heisei 24 (2012).
 また、平成5(1993)年には高齢者福祉センター「寿楽」、平成7(1995)年に心身障害者(児)福祉センター「あゆみ」、平成8(1996)年に新保健センター、平成9(1997)年にあすなろ児童館等複合施設など福祉・保健施設が相次いで完成した。Furthermore, there was a succession of social welfare and health care facilities completed, including "Juraku", an aged nursing care facility, in Heisei 5 (1993), a welfare center "Ayumi" for the physically and mentally handicapped (children) in Heisei 7 (1995), a new health center in Heisei 8 (1996), and a complex facility which included "Asunaro Children's House" in Heisei 9 (1997).
 通信・情報化関連施策として、平成10(1998)年にはホームページの開設や戸籍事務のコンピューター化を実現した。As for communication and information-related initiatives, the town unveiled the town's home page and computerization of its family registration data handling in Heisei 10 (1998).
 また、循環型社会を築くための拠点施設として、平成15(2003)年4月にみずほリサイクルプラザを開設した。Also, as the central facility to cater for a recycling-conscious society, Mizuho Recycle Plaza was opened in April, Heisei 15 (2003).
 平成16(2004)年6月には横田基地との民間の交流を目的として瑞穂・横田交流協会が設立された。平成17(2005)年3月には町民の念願であった箱根ケ崎駅舎及び東西自由通路が完成、同年11月には国有財産を活用したみずほエコパークがオープン、平成18(2006)年 11月には元狭山コミュニティセンターがオープン、同年7月には米国モーガンヒル市と姉妹都市提携をしている。平成20(2008)年5月には残堀川改修工事が完成、平成23(2011)年11月には長岡コミュニティセンターがオープンするなど、まちづくりが着実に進んでいる。In June Heisei 16 (2004), the Mizuho-Yokota Exchange Association was launched to facilitate civilian exchanges with the Yokota Air Base. In March Heisei 17 (2005), both the Hakonegasaki station building and the east and west free passage were completed, fulfilling a long-cherished goal of the townspeople, and in November the same year, Mizuho Eco Park was opened by utilizing a national property. In November Heisei 18 (2006) the Motosayama Community Center was open, and in July of the same year the town established a sister city relationship with the City of Morgan Hill, California, USA. Further, the town development has been progressing steadily as demonstrated by the completion of Zanbori River improvement work in May Heisei 20 (2008), and the opening of the Nagaoka Community Center in November Heisei 23 (2011).
 平成23年度に策定された第4次瑞穂町長期総合計画の将来都市像「みらいに ずっと ほこれるまち“潤いあふれ、活力みなぎる地域社会をめざして”」の実現に向け、「自立と協働」の基本理念に基づき、町民、事業者、町が自立し、英知を結集して協働することにより、潤いと活力を実感できるまちを目指している。We are working hard to make a reality of the vision for our future, "A Town for Tomorrow that will Make a Vital and Caring Community Proud", as described in the fourth Mizuho Town long-term strategic plan formulated in Heisei 23 (2011) fiscal year. We believe that this goal will be realized through teamwork involving all the residents, business and the town and tapping into their pooled knowledge, ideas and energy, fully in line with our philosophy of "self-reliance and cooperation".