瑞穂町図書館/温故知新 ― 瑞穂町を旅する地域資料

みずほ50年

瑞穂50年の軌跡  Tracing 50 years of Mizuho History

町制施行、瑞穂町誕生  Born with the Town establishment

 昭和15年は紀元2600年のおめでたい年とされ、全国的に祝賀行事や記念行事が行われました。箱根ヶ崎・石畑・殿ヶ谷・長岡の各村は組合村を発展的に解消し、町制を施行し、西多摩郡瑞穂町となりました。このとき人口は6,851人でした。 The year 1940 was considered to be the auspicious year marking the 2600th year from the first emperor Jimmu, and nationwide celebrations and commemorative events were held. Each of the Hakonegasaki, Ishihata,Tonogaya and Nagaoka villages progressively dissolved the arrangement of village association to establish the Town system, and formed Mizuho-machi (Mizuho town), Nishitama-gun. The population was then 6,851.
 翌年の16年には、小学校が国民学校になり、暮れにはついに太平洋戦争へと突入してしまいました。 In the following year of 1941, elementary schools became the national elementary schools, and finally Japan became embroiled in the Second World War at the end of the year.
 食糧を中心とする困窮耐乏生活は、戦況の深刻化とともに極めて厳しい状況となりました。瑞穂町は農村ではありましたが、畑作地帯であり米の収穫がほとんどなかったことに加え、江戸時代の年貢のように、収穫量の増減に関係ない一定量の作物供出が課せられ、肥料不足などによる不作で困窮し、農家がヤミ米を買う状態であったといいます。しかし、そこにも都会からの買い出しが訪れ、集団や一般の疎開者が来町しました。 As the war intensified, daily living entailed extremely severe difficulties and austerity, particularly regarding securing food. While Mizuho was a rural community, the farmers produced mainly dry upland crops and little rice, yet they were required to deliver a fixed amount of crops, regardless of the amount harvested, to the government as was the case with the annual tribute of the Edo period. Further, the lack of fertilizer, etc. led to poor harvests, and the farmers were even said to have been forced to resort to buy black-market rice. Nevertheless, visitors did come from the city to purchase food directly and also did those who had evacuated in groups (i.e., school children) and private individuals.

瑞穂町制施行当時の職員
(昭和15年11月15日)

Members of the council at the time of the Mizuho township system implementation
(November 15, 1940).
瑞穂町誕生を告げる東京府告示
Tokyo Prefecture notification announcing the birth of Mizuho Town.
大詔奉戴日の集まり、箱根ヶ崎五丁目時計台前
(昭和17年頃)

A gathering for Taisho Hotai-bi
(reverential acceptance of the imperial edict day)
in front of the clock tower at 5-chome Hakonegasaki
(circa 1942)
防空訓練(昭和18年)
Air-raid drill (1943)
旧日本陸軍射撃場
(現瑞穂中学校、昭和18年頃)

Imperial Japanese Army firing range
(now Mizuho Junior High School, circa 1943)
戦時中の炭焼
Charcoal-making during wartime

年(西暦)
Year (CE)

Month
内  容Contents
昭和15年(1940)9日独伊三国同盟Tripartite Pact signed between Japan, Germany and Italy.
11箱根ヶ崎村、石畑村、殿ヶ谷村、長岡村を廃して町制施行、瑞穂町誕生となるMizuho town was created following the Town system implementation which abolished the villages of Hakonegasaki, Ishihata, Tonogaya and Nagaoka.
16年(1941)4武蔵野尋常高等小学院が瑞穂第一国民学校に、長岡尋常小学校が瑞穂第二国民学校に改称Musashino Jinjo Senior Elementary School was redesignated as the Mizuho First National Elementary School, and Nagaoka Jinjo/Normal Elementary School became the Mizuho Second National Elementary School.
12真珠湾攻撃、太平洋戦争始まるPearl Harbor attack and start of the Pacific War
19年(1944)4瑞穂町農業会設立Mizuho Agricultural Association was founded.
11戦時託児所開設Wartime child nursery opened.

年表中の写真は毎日新聞社提供The photos in the chronological tables were kindly provided by the Mainichi Newspaper.